Survey results from CEOs of pharmaceutical firms and "archival" data were used to explore the relationship between strategic intent, control mechanisms, and innovation. Results suggest that strategic intent does not have a direct effect on innovation outcomes but does have an indirect affect via control mechanisms. (Source of archival data is not documented and that data is not included.)
formal control mechanisms, research and development
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Cardinal, Laura B., "Pursuing Product Modifications and New Products : The Role of Organizational Control Mechanisms in Implementing Innovation Strategies in the Pharmaceutical Industry" (1991). Working Papers. 149.