The wireless communication market is expected to witness considerable growth in the immediate future due to increasing smart device usage to access real-time data. Mobile devices become the predominant method of Internet access via cellular networks (4G/5G) and the onset of virtual reality (VR), ushering in the wide deployment of multiple bands, ranging from TVWhite Spaces to cellular/WiFi bands and on to mmWave. Multi-antenna techniques have been considered to be promising approaches in telecommunication to optimize the utilization of radio spectrum and minimize the cost of system construction. The performance of multiple antenna technology depends on the utilization of radio propagation properties and feedback of such information in a timely manner. However, when a signal is transmitted, it is usually dispersed over time coming over different paths of different lengths due to reflections from obstacles or affected by Doppler shift in mobile environments. This motivates the design of novel feedback mechanisms that improve the performance of multi-antenna systems. Accurate channel state information (CSI) is essential to increasing throughput in multiinput, multi-output (MIMO) systems with digital beamforming. Channel-state information for the operation of MIMO schemes (such as transmit diversity or spatial multiplexing) can be acquired by feedback of CSI reports in the downlink direction, or inferred from uplink measurements assuming perfect channel reciprocity (CR). However, most works make the assumption that channels are perfectly reciprocal. This assumption is often incorrect in practice due to poor channel estimation and imperfect channel feedback. Instead, experiments have demonstrated that channel reciprocity can be easily broken by multiple factors. Specifically, channel reciprocity error (CRE) introduced by transmitter-receiver imbalance have been widely studied by both simulations and experiments, and the impact of mobility and estimation error have been fully investigated in this thesis. In particular, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have asymmetric behavior when communicating with one another and to the ground, due to differences in altitude that frequently occur. Feedback mechanisms are also affected by channel differences caused by the user’s body. While there has been work to specifically quantify the losses in signal reception, there has been little work on how these channel differences affect feedback mechanisms.

In this dissertation, we perform system-level simulations, implement design with a software defined radio platform, conduct in-field experiments for various wireless communication systems to analyze different channel feedback mechanisms. To explore the feedback mechanism, we then explore two specific real world scenarios, including UAV-based beamforming communications, and user-induced feedback systems.

Degree Date

Fall 2019

Document Type


Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering


Joseph Camp


MIMO, IEEE 802.11ac, Channel Estimation, Feedback Mechanism, Hybrid Feedback, Beamforming, UAV communications

Number of Pages




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License