A measurement of the change in hardness produced in raw water by the usual treatment in the city purification plant of Dallas, Texas, was a project undertaken by the class in elementary quantitative analysis. The treatment which would affect the hardness was the addition of ferrous sulphate and lime at the time the water was pumped into the settling basins, and filtration through gravel. In making this comparison, the total alkalinity, temporary hardness, and permanent hardness of raw water and water after treatment, were determined. Raw water samples were taken as the water entered the purification plant; samples of treated water from city main at the plant.
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Frazell, W. D. and Lewelling, Henry
"A Comparison Of Hardness In Dallas Water Before And After Treatment In The City Water Plant,"
Field and Laboratory: Vol. 2
Available at: https://scholar.smu.edu/fieldandlab/vol2/iss1/2