A three-dimensional display is a useful method which can provide spatially accurate representations of high-resolution images with a 360° view. Therefore, it has potential to be applied widely in the medical area, entertainment industry and for military applications. According to the first-generation 3D digital light photoactivatable dye display (3D Light PAD), N-phenyl spirolactam rhodamine B was used as photoactivatable compound that could be switched from non-fluorescent to fluorescent using ultraviolet light. However, the detailed mechanism, how other rhodamine derivatives would perform in 3D Light PAD, and what other factors in this system could improve the imaging quality remained unclear. In order to solve these problems and understand the properties of rhodamine derivatives, we synthesized a series of N-aryl spirolactam rhodamine photoswitches and tested their spectroscopic characterizations such as irradiation wavelength and absorbance, duration of switching from off-state to on-state and irradiation wavelength dependence. Also, extinction coefficients and fluorescent quantum yields of the fluorescent form of these compounds was measured by using trifluoroacetic acid to drive the equilibrium to the open form. According to these results, N-aryl spirolactam rhodamine derivatives with fluorinated aminoalkyl groups (SRCF3) that have green (518 nm) emission wavelengths were synthesized by a new procedure and their spectroscopic characterizations including extinction coefficients and fluorescent quantum yields were measured by the same methods as the red dyes. These results helped us better understand the mechanism of photoswithching reactions more clearly and were used to set the foundation for a multi-color volumetric 3D display.

Different with fluorescence, chemiluminescence is the light production from exothermic chemical reactions, where the excited state is accessed during the reaction and then the light will be generated by relaxation from excited state to the ground state. As an imaging modality, chemiluminescence has many advantages compared with current imaging methods, including fluorescence, bioluminescence and phosphorescence. The most important thing is chemiluminescence could work well both in vivo and in vitro without light excitation or genetic modification like fluorescence and bioluminescence. Based on it, several chemiluminescent probes for different reactive species were designed, synthesized, characterized, and applied for cellular and in vivo studies. CHS-4 and CL-DNP are chemiluminescent probes for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with azide and dinitro phenyl group triggers. According to the sensitivity and selectivity studies of these probes during in vitro tests, finally the cellular studies of them were designed in A549 cells

Degree Date

Summer 8-3-2022

Document Type


Degree Name





Alex Lippert

Subject Area

Biochemistry, Chemistry



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License