Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters


Ten years ago, there was reason to believe that Second Amendment doctrine would—following elements of District of Columbia v. Heller—become rigid and binary. Likewise, scholarship might have followed the same path; digging into the pre-Heller trenches and pitting "pro-gun" against "pro-regulation" views. In "From Theory to Doctrine: An Empirical Analysis of the Right to Keep and Bear Arms After Heller," we showed through empirical study that the doctrinal reality is far more nuanced and interesting. In this essay, we describe how Heller not only inaugurated a new era of constitutional doctrine, but it also helped create a burgeoning new field of legal scholarship.

Publication Title

Duke Law Journal Online

Document Type



Second Amendment, constitutional law, firearms