Subject Area



The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how the use of computer-adaptive tests (CAT) within the Response to Intervention (RTI) framework relates to reading growth for students in Grades 1-3 with or at risk for reading disabilities (i.e., focusing on students recommended for tiered interventions). I also explored whether disaggregating within student growth for students in different grades, at different tiers, those with and at risk for reading disabilities, from diverse backgrounds, and other moderators could help researchers learn more about individual reading growth to, in turn, individualize opportunities that could support practice and accelerate learning. Using a multi-level longitudinal model with mixed effects, in an intent-to-treat type analysis, I examined a subset of data that included ISIP-ER progress monitoring data with up to nine time points from n = 2647 students in Grades 1-3. Results revealed a significant interaction between student growth on ISIP-ER scores and CAT-recommended initial tier status. Interaction models also suggested student growth and recommended tier status were significantly moderated by grade, race, ELL status, and special education status. Results tended to support early intervention with the strongest growth trajectories evidenced in the Grade 1 students. Exploratory analyses of the CAT recommending students to switch tiers or stay in tiers across the year revealed most students recommended to Tier 1 and Tier 3 stay in their respective tiers, while students recommended to Tier 2 were virtually all switchers leading to questions about the CAT’s ability to identify and address the instructional needs of the students accurately.

Key words: Response to Intervention, reading growth, computer-adaptive, early elementary

Degree Date

Spring 2023

Document Type


Degree Name



Teaching and Learning


Dr. Stephanie Al Otaiba

Number of Pages




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Available for download on Tuesday, May 06, 2025