Policy-makers, educators, and parents have long viewed effective parent involvement practices as a way to help close the education gap that exists within high minority public schools. The creation of No Child Left Behind (2002) has transformed parent involvement programs, which were once a luxury, into a requirement for those schools receiving Title I funding. The problem, however, is the difficulty in agreeing on what defines high-quality parent involvement practices. Through the examination of parent involvement research, such as Fan and Chen (2001), this paper reveals that parent expectations have the strongest relationship, of all parent involvement practices examined, in predicting students’ academic achievement. Furthermore, this paper discovered that the school level variable of school poverty, moderates the relationship between discrepancies in parent and student expectations and academic outcomes such as standardized testing.

Degree Date

Spring 5-18-2019

Document Type


Degree Name



Teaching and Learning


Dr. Ken Springer

Second Advisor

Dr. Paul Yovanoff

Third Advisor

Dr. Akihito Kamata

Subject Area

Education, Statistics

Number of Pages




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License