In this meta-analysis, the effects of text-based graphic organizer interventions on content learning in Science and Social Studies for students in grades 3-12, including typically developing and struggling students, and students with disabilities (i.e., LD, ID, and ASD) were assessed. A random-effects model with a correlated robust variance estimation approach was used and showed text based graphic organizer interventions had a large overall positive effect (ES = 1.65) on content learning in both Science and Social Studies. In addition, moderator analysis indicated that text-based graphic organizer interventions were more effective when students received teacher instruction prior to completing graphic organizers independently. Thus, an important implication of this meta-analysis is that text-based graphic organizers are an effective intervention for content learning for a wide range of students, particularly when students are provided with teacher instruction on how to complete the graphic organizer prior to using them independently. Limitations and implications for future research are provided.

Degree Date

Fall 2020

Document Type


Degree Name



Teaching and Learning


Stephanie Al Otaiba

Subject Area


Number of Pages




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License