Alternative Title

Concerning the Haugen-Keeling-Hartshorne discussion in the journal Process Studies

Publication Date

Spring 4-19-2018


In the Fall 1993 issue of the journal Process Studies, David Haugen and L. Bryant Keeling offered a criticism of Charles Hartshorne’s neoclassical theology. In the same issue, this criticism was followed by Hartshorne’s less than one-page response, a response Theodore Walker judged to be seriously inadequate. In the Fall-Winter 2006 issue of Process Studies, Walker offered a neoclassical response to the Haugen-Keeling-Hartshorne discussion. In the Spring-Summer 2008 issue of Process Studies, Haugen and Keeling offered a reply to Walker. Ten years later, in April 2018, Walker offers this reply to the Haugen-Keeling reply.

At issue is whether Hartshorne’s neoclassical theology is compatible with big bang cosmology. Walker argues that neoclassical theology is incompatible with classical versions of big bang cosmology, and compatible with non-classical versions of big bang cosmology, including Stephen Hawking’s non-classical “no boundary” cosmology.

Document Type



neoclassical theology, neoclassical cosmology, big bang cosmology, quantum cosmology


Comparative Philosophy | Digital Humanities | History of Philosophy | Metaphysics | Philosophy of Science | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion